Some relevant article related to the field of pipe fittings are given below:Article 1: Fittings and Connections for Polyethylene Pipe for Micro irrigation Systems
It is very essential to know the necessary parts and connectors for laterals, manifolds, sub mains and main-lines before installation of a micro-irrigation system. When we talk about the various components of a piping system, it includes various fittings and connections and their main purpose is to joining and adapting pipes and other parts. In micro irrigation systems, the most frequently used material for lateral lines is polyethylene (PE) pipe. This article provides some information on available connectors and fittings for PE pipe that are solely used in micro irrigation systems.
Not all flexible pipes used in irrigation is polyethylene pipe. Another material available is flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe and it can be connected using methods and fittings for PVC.
It is to be noted that PE lines cannot be connected in the same manner as PVC pipe as this is connected using PVC cement. PE lines are connected by insert fittings or compression fittings. Insert fittings are useful because they fit tightly inside the PE line. Compression fittings are fitted over the pipe's exterior and they create less friction loss and fewer stress cracking problems.
In order to connect PE laterals to PVC manifolds or other PVC parts of the system, it is necessary to use various combination fittings. Combination fittings have a combination of slip or male or female threaded fittings with insert or compression fittings.Article 2: Instrument pipe fittings
In the year 2006, more than 10,000 PSI-rated (689 bar) instrument pipe fittings were manufactured by a certain company. These instrument pipe fittings range were used to provide instrumentation and piping engineers with quality components. These were used for interconnecting instrument-grade piping in the high pressure applications, like as those areas found in deep water oil and gas exploration and production. These pipe fittings are available in different forms like straight, elbow, tee and cross shapes, and they support male and female National Pipe Taper (NPT) thread sizes ranging from 1/8 up to 1 inch. The instrument pipe fittings are fabricated from 316L grade stainless steel which is the standard material, with other materials available as options.
To support quality procedures, heat code traceability identification codes which is also known as HCT code are provided as standard. In total, the company launched 13 styles of fittings , providing a single-piece solution for every common connection requirement. These styles were: male hex nipple couplings in long and standard sizes, street elbow, male and female elbows and tees, female cross, hex headed plug, pipe cap, female hex coupling, adapter and reduced bushing.Article 3: Group of ASTM standards for welded pipe fittings
Certain ASTM standard specifications were given to welded pipe fittings recently covering various aspects of fittings for high-temperature service, special applications like fire protection use and other ordinary services. These standards are given in the table below:
|A234||A234/A234M-99||Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service|
|A403||A403/A403M-99a||Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings|
|A420||A420/A420M-99||Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Low-Temperature Service|
|A774||A774/A774M-98||As-Welded Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Fittings for General Corrosive Service at Low and Moderate Temperatures|
As pipe fittings are used in various applications involving slurries, gas, liquid, corrosive substances, mud, chemicals etc., it is essential to follow certain safety tips for proper functioning of these fittings when fitted to various pies. According to an article published recently, some safety tips that can be followed are as follows: